The U.S. Military "Tested" Biological Weapons on
Thousands of American
On dozens of separate occasions since the Second World War, biological
weapons have been used against innocent U.S. civilians. These actions were
perpetrated, not by foreign terrorists but by the US Army, during secret
"open-air" biowarfare experiments that used the American public as guinea
One of the main sources of information on this history is an unclassified
Special Report to Congress by the US Army called: "US Army Activity in the
US Biological Warfare Programs, 1942-1977. Vols 1 and 2," that was
published on February 24, 1977.
* In 1951, African American citizens were deliberately targeted to
determine whether they were more susceptible than whites to disease caused
by certain biological agents.
* The US Army deliberately released biological weapons on thousands of
citizens living in the San Francisco Bay area, California; Tampa Bay,
Florida, Savannah, Georgia; New York City and elsewhere.
* A US court said that the military could not be sued by family members of
a San Fransisco victim who died when deliberately and unknowingly exposed
to bioweapons during a U.S. Army experiment in 1950.
There is, however, no evidence that anyone has ever been investigated, let
alone charged or convicted, for any of these well-documented cases in which
biological weapons were used against U.S. civilians, even though written
admissions of responsibility for the "experiments" are readily available on
the public record.
In solidarity with all victims of terrorism
Coordinator, Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade
The History of Bioterrorism in America:
White Power, White Powder and the White House
By Richard Sanders, Coordinator, COAT
White power fanatics and neo-Nazis from extreme right, American fringe
groups have applauding the terrorist actions of September 11. They are
calling on their members to launch a Christian holy war against the U.S.
This gets one wondering whether the recent anthrax mailings have a
homegrown origin. In a back issue of "Covert Action Quarterly" there was
the story of a white supremacist who complained when he thought the "black
death" plague bacteria that he'd legally ordered was slow to arrive by FedEx.
Here is that fascinating story that seems to have been lost in the frenzied
blizzard of media attention on U.S. bio-terrorism:
"Dangerous (to whom) Substances
While possessing five grams of crack will get you a mandatory five years in
prison, ordering up a batch of the bubonic plague bacterium that wiped out
one-third of 14th-century Europe, turns out to be perfectly legal. So is
holding even more dangerous pathogens such as anthrax and ricin botulinal
toxin, called the most lethal substance known.
When white supremacist Larry Wayne Harris complained that the FedEx
shipment of plague for which he had paid $240 was late, someone at the
Rockville, Md.-based American Type Culture Collection grew suspicious and
notified the Centers for Disease Control.
Soon the FBI, police, public health officials, and emergency workers in
spacesuits were knocking at his door. In the house they found smoke
grenades, blasting caps, almost a dozen M-1 carbines, and white separatist
literature. In the glove compartment of his car, parked in his driveway,
sat the three vials of plague still packed in two layers of glass,
absorbent foam and a sealed metalcanister. They were labeled infectious
substance as required by federal regulations. But in the end, all they
could pin on the certified microbiologist and Aryan Nations member was a
single charge of wire fraud for giving his home address instead of that of
the lab listed on his permit."
Covert Action Quarterly (#56) Spring 1996, "Covert Briefs" by Terry Allen
This story also appears in hearings of the U.S. House of Representatives'
Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations:
"... The case involving Larry Wayne Harris garnered national attention,
based upon his interest in biological weapons agents. In 1995, Harris
ordered three vials of Yersinia pestis from a culture company. This is the
causal agent for bubonic plague. After the vials were sent to Harris, he
called to inquire about them from the company from which he ordered the
vials, and the company became suspicious. After consulting with the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, law enforcement was contacted and the
vials were recovered from the glove compartment of Harris' vehicle.
Although Harris claimed to be a microbiologist who was writing a training
manual for the Aryan Nations, he certainly did not have the facility, or
the training, necessary to properly handle the material. However, he had
broken no law in possessing the agent, nor in maintaining it in his glove
compartment. Ultimately, he was charged under the Fraud by Wire statute for
fraudulently using a laboratory registration number when ordering the
agent. A misdemeanor would exist today for such conduct under CDC transfer
"Threat of Bioterrorism in America: Assessing the Adequacy of Federal Law
Relating to Dangerous Biological Agents;" HEARING before The Subcommittee
on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of
Representatives, 160th Congress, First Session (May 20, 1999) Serial No.
So, let that be a lesson to all homegrown American fascists. Your
government will not tolerate wire fraud. Sure, you can write hate manuals
for white power groups, you can keep your weapons and your bomb-making
materials. Sure, you can order bubonic plague by FedEx, but please just
make sure that you fill in the order form correctly! That must have sent
shivers through all those American white power fringe groups.
My first instinct was that security authorities and the mainstream media
have not adequately explored the obvious possibility that recent
bioterrorist attacks in the U.S. were carried out by domestic white power
groups. Many fingers are still pointing towards Bin Laden, Afghanistan and
Iraq as possible culprits behind the recent outbreak of bioterrorism in
In the hopes of finding news stories on this subject, I did another web
search, this time for "white power" and anthrax. I was surprised to find
102 references. However, I quickly realized that many of these were the
result of typos:
"... York Times reporter who reportedly received a letter with white power
through the mail.... "
"... after a suspicious package containing a white power was discovered on
the floor ...
"... Preliminary tests on a white power found Wednesday in a letter sent to
the premier revealed no evidence of anthrax contamination ..."
"... A suspicious white power that closed down the South Orleans Post ... "
"... was closed off early today after an employee found white power in the
"... to his former employer which contained 'white power bacteria.' The
worker also threatened ...
"... tightened measures at various local levels are adopted to keep anthrax
bacterial 'white power out of China'. ...
It is unfortunate that this flurry of articles exposing "white power" as a
source of terrorism was all because of typographical errors. Perhaps in
the future, the mainstream media will do its research and correct some of
its most glaring mistakes, the least of which are caused simply by poor
THE HISTORY OF BIOTERRORISM IN AMERICA
In order to put bioterrorism in context, journalists, security officials
and the general public should examine domestic U.S. history. We should be
asking: Is this the first time that bioterrorism has occurred in America?
If there are prior examples of bioterrorism, who was behind them? Was it
Moslem fundamentalists? White power fringe groups? Were any of the
culprits ever charged? Did they stand trial? Were they found guilty?
Were they punished?
Here is a very short summary of this interesting history:
"The first recorded instance of US biological warfare was in 1763, when
white colonial settlers gave smallpox-infected blankets to Native Americans
who sought friendly relations. Many died as a result. This tactic was
repeated during the "Trail of Tears" of the 1800s and was also used by
British settlers to decimate Native American Indian populations....
In 1977, for the first time, the US Army admitted carrying out hundreds of
chemical and biological warfare tests since World War II, including at
least 25 that targeted civilian populations. Previously classified records
show that between 1951 and 1967, on at least 48 occasions the Army used
disease-causing microbes in open-air tests and, that on at least 31 other
occasions, anti-crop substances were knowingly discharged into the
environment. Some especially outrageous highlights were the following:
In 1950, the US Navy secretly sprayed a cloud of Serratia marcescens
bacteria over San Francisco. The Navy later claimed the bacteria used in
the simulated attack were harmless, but many residents came down with
pneumonia-like symptoms and one died. Although the military did not carry
out many follow up studies on these tests, one showed that nearly every
single person became infected with the test organism....
In 1955 the Tampa Bay area of Florida experienced a sharp rise in Whooping
Cough cases, including 12 deaths, following a CIA bio-war test where a
bacteria withdrawn from the Army's Chemical and Biological Warfare arsenal
was released into the environment. Details of the test are still classified.
Between 1956 and 1958 in the poor black communities of Savannah, Georgia
and Avon Park, Florida, the Army carried out field tests in which
mosquitoes were released into residential neighbourhoods both from ground
level and dropped from planes and helicopters. Many people were swarmed by
mosquitoes, and developed unknown fevers; some even died. After each test,
US Army personnel posing as public health officials photographed and tested
the victims and then disappeared from town. It is theorized that the
mosquitoes were infected with a strain of Yellow Fever. However, details of
the testing remain classified....
>From June 7th to 10th 1966, the US Army's Special Operations Division (SOD)
dispensed a bacillus throughout the New York City subway system. The Army's
justification for the experiment was the fact that there are many subways
in the (former) Soviet Union, Europe, and South America. Although there are
no harmful effects known for this release, details of the experiment are
"Beyond AIDS: The West's Covert Chemical-Biological Warfare Programs"
So, from this evidence we can see that America has indeed experienced the
deliberate use of biological agents against innocent people leading to
examples of disease and death. The early cases (from the 1700s and 1800s)
were carried out by relatively recent immigrants, perhaps largely from
Britain. They may have held some white supremacist attitudes. However,
their memberships in racist organizations are unknown and would require
further research. It seems very doubtful that any of the perpetrators were
Moslems, fundamentalist or otherwise. We can be fairly certain that they
considered themselves good Christians.
Let us focus our attention now on the more recent cases (since WWII), as we
know more about the incidents themselves and the organizations responsible.
Let's continue to answer the questions that I posed earlier:
There is no evidence that any fringe groups, white power-oriented or
otherwise, were involved in these recent examples of bio-terrorism in
America. In fact, there are clear, written admissions of guilt by the US
Army, i.e., confessions that have even been entered into the official
government record. However, no one was ever charged, tried or punished for
Some may interrupt this line of reasoning to argue that these were not
terrorist actions because they were carried out for scientific,
experimental purposes, not political ones. This is a good point and needs
to be examined.
The victims in these cases do not seem to have been infected for any
political purpose. No media statements by the terrorists were issued at
the time claiming responsibility for the attacks or specifying any
political goals or ideals. But, then again, no such messages were left by
the terrorists who destroyed the World Trade Center. Perhaps they too were
conducting a scientific experiment?
The U.S Army's actions were carried out for experimental purposes.
However, was this "pure science" or were experiments done for practical
purposes? If so, what was their ultimate goal?
An obvious hypothesis is that these experiments were conducted in order to
learn the effects of biological agents upon civilian populations so that
they could be used during war to deliberately inflict casualties on foreign
To investigate this hypothesis, let's turn again to our source and see if
the U.S. military ever planned or used biological weapons in war:
"During World War II, ... the first official US biological warfare
programme began with an initial grant of $250,000, modest by wartime
standards, but the biological warfare program quickly grew to be one of the
largest wartime scientific projects in American history, second only to the
Manhattan Project which created the atomic bomb.
Granted top priority status, the program employed approximately four
thousand people by the end of the war. The centre of activity was the
Special Projects division of the Chemical Warfare Service and its new
research and development centre located in Fort Detrick, Maryland. The
Detrick scientists cast a wide experimental net. They studied anthrax,
brucellosis (undulant fever), Botulinus toxin, plague, southern blight of
grains, potatoes and sugar beets (Sclerotium rolfoil), late blight, late
blast, brownspot of rice, plant growth inhibitors, rinderpest, tularemia
(Rabbit fever), mussel poisoning, coccidioidomycosis, rickettsia,
psittacosis, neurotropic encephalitis, Newcastle disease and fowl plague.
The first to receive concentrated attention were anthrax and Botulinus
toxin. It was Detrick's mission to mass-produce such agents for operational
use. Meanwhile the Detrick scientists, among them George Merck, head of the
pharmaceutical giant Merck & Co., were recruited to head the War Research
In 1932, Japanese troops invaded Manchuria, where Shiro Ishii, a physician
and army officer, began preliminary experiments in germ warfare. Ishii
formed Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit.... In 1942 Ishii began field
tests of germ warfare on Chinese soldiers and civilians. Some 9,000 test
subjects, which Ishii and his peers called "logs," died of bubonic plague,
cholera, anthrax and other diseases....
The US government not only knew about this but did nothing. What they did
instead was to offer immunity to would-be Japanese war criminals in
exchange for the germ warfare information and expertise: In the final days
of the Pacific war, Japanese troops blew up the headquarters of Unit 731.
Ishii ordered 150 remaining "logs" to be killed in order to cover up their
experimentation. In 1946 a secret deal was made between the US and Ishii
and other Unit 731 leaders, in which the germ warfare data based on human
experimentation was exchanged for immunity from war-crimes prosecution....
In the 1950-53 Korean War, according to an international investigating
commission, the US used an array of germ warfare weapons against North
Korea: "feathers infected with anthrax; lice, fleas and mosquitoes dosed
with plague and yellow fever; rodents infected with a variety of diseases;
and various implements contaminated with deadly microbes - toilet paper,
envelopes and the ink in fountain pens." The Eisenhower administration
later pressed Sedition charges against three Americans who published
accounts of these activities....
Since its 1959 revolution, Cuba was a prime target of US military, economic
and political attacks. An "anti-crop warfare" programme was carried out
during the 1960s. In 1971 the CIA infected Cuban pigs with African swine
fever, a deadly disease; Cuban authorities had to slaughter the entire pig
population to stop the disease's spread. A second such epidemic in 1980,
with equally devastating consequences, was of unknown but suspicious
origins. The same year blue mould decimated the tobacco harvest and a rust
disease hit the sugar cane crop. The next year an epidemic of dengue
hemorrhagic fever (a painful mosquito-borne disease involving great pain,
flu symptoms, internal bleeding and shock) struck 300,000 Cubans and killed
158 (including 101 children). Court testimony in 1984 by a Cuban
counter-revolutionary terrorist revealed that the CIA had released
dengue-infected mosquitoes on the island....
In 1982, Salvadoran trade unionists charged that epidemics of previously
unknown diseases had erupted in many areas immediately after US-directed
aerial bombings. Particularly cited was hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, which
causes bleeding of the eyes. In 1985, the Salvadoran Association of Health
Professionals charged that another new disease, which caused high fevers,
headaches, joint pains, rash and later jaundice, occurred after bombings
"of an unfamiliar character." In both cases, US CBW was suspected.
In 1985, an outbreak of dengue fever - the first such epidemic in the
country - occurred in Managua and other areas a few months after the
escalation of US aerial reconnaissance missions. Nearly half of the capital
city's population became ill, and there were several deaths. The Nicaraguan
health ministry investigated the possibility of a US CBW
[Chemical-Biological Warfare] role...."
Clearly, the US military admits its long history of funding the research
and development of bioweapons. Such weapons are not clever enough to
target only people wearing military uniforms. Pathogens will harm or kill
everyone in their path. Unlike the masterminds behind military operations
who do practice discrimination, these weapons do not. That's why they are
called "indiscriminate" weapons of mass destruction. That's why they are
illegal under the Geneva Conventions. That's why biological weapons are
weapons of terror.
Horrific as this very cursory history may be, it does not represent the
cutting edge of Chemical/Biological terrorism. The future looks even more
grim because of the possible development of weapons that will racially
discriminate. For the future of such warfare, one must examine the
modern-day techno-eugenics of the Human Genome Project. One of the goals
of this ostensibly benign effort is the creation of "pharmacogenomics
'custom drugs.'" Dave McGowan explains that these are:
"specifically tailored to differentially affect various genetic (racial)
types; drugs, that is, that could easily be wielded as ethnically specific
biowarfare agents. The development of such weapons has been an explicit
goal of the U.S. military for at least a quarter-century. In 1975, an
American military manual candidly noted that:
'It is theoretically possible to develop so-called 'ethnic chemical
weapons,' which would be designed to exploit naturally occurring
differences in vulnerability among specific population groups. Thus, such a
weapon would be capable of incapacitating or killing a selected enemy
population to a significantly greater extent than the population of
Dave McGowan, "Genomes and Eugenics," August 2000
What are the origins of this "Human Genome Project"? McGowan's fascinating
article traces the pedigree of this project back to a pseudo-scientific,
white supremacist movement called Eugenics. But this was no garden variety
racist movement on the fringe. Eugenics was taught in Ivy League
universities and it was funded through the largesse of such American giants
as Rockefeller, Carnegie, Harriman, Kellogg and Ford.
This demonstrates once again that when researching far-right, fascist-style
politics it is not enough to scan the fringes of the political scene.
"White power" politics can often be found right at the very centre of U.S.
politics. Those connected to American "white power" politics are not just
fanatics on the fringes. They are the power brokers on Wall Street and in
Washington. This racist movement is a much more grave threat to world
peace, security and justice than many suspect.
In his description of the rise of the racist American Eugenics movement to
political eminance, McGowan notes that:
"1932 saw New York's American Museum of Natural History host the Third
International Congress of Eugenics, at which the sterilization of fourteen
million Americans was called for. The gathering was dedicated to Mary
Harriman, the mother of Averell Harriman - partner at the Wall Street
powerhouse Brown Brothers/Harriman along with Prescott Bush and Herbert
Walker. The Hamburg-Amerika Shipping Line - a wholly owned subsidiary of
Brown Brothers/Harriman that would in 1942 be seized by the U.S. Alien
Property Custodian under authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act -
provided transportation to America for a sizable number of Nazis to attend
the conference. Included among them was Dr. Rudin, who was unanimously
elected president of the International Federation of Eugenics Societies.
The following year, Hitler enacted the Law for the Prevention of Hereditary
Diseases in Posterity, drafted by Dr. Rudin and patterned directly after
H.H. Laughlin's 1922 model [i.e., the American 'Model Eugenical
Sterilization Law' which was the blueprint for several U.S. state
THE WHITE HOUSE
You may have noticed, in this last quotation, a passing reference to
Prescott Bush and Herbert Walker. You may be asking: Are they any relation
to former President George Herbert Walker Bush and his son, current
President George Walker Bush? If you are asking this, then you will be
surprised to learn that:
"former President Bush and his Governor sons owe their wealth, political
clout and social prestige to the hard work of grandfather and former US
Senator Prescott Bush and to Prescotts' father-in-law [George] Herbert
Walker. Both men made fortunes on Wall Street by working as frontmen for
Nazi-owned shipping companies managed by the firm Brown Brothers Harriman.
They were key figures in establishing what Hitler and Wall Street hoped
would be the financial pillars of the American wing of world fascism.
The Bush family also have a long association with the pseudo-science of
Eugenics, or population control, which reached its fullest expression in
Nazi Germany. Hitler publicly acknowledged that he got many of his ideas
for racial cleansing from the American Eugenics movement, which by the
beginning of WWII had passed laws mandating sterilization of so-called
social undesirables in more than 25 states."
"GW Bush and the Bi-partisanism Hustle" by Robert Lederman
The mainstream media has always conveniently overlooked a wide variety of
incredible political scandals. One such scandal that now begs to be
revealed is that the Bush family is deeply rooted in the promotion of white
power theories and fascist politics of the worst kind.
The current President's grandfather, Prescott Bush, got his son GHW Bush
set up in the international oil business and financed his election
campaigns. Prescott, and his wife's father, George Herbert Walker, were
among the American corporate elite who promoted the blatantly racist
movement called Eugenics. They were also among the powerful circle of
multi-millionaire American lawyers, bankers and industrialists who joined
their German colleagues in helping to finance Adolph Hitler's notorious
rise to power.
The reason these simple truths sound so unbelievable is that the mainstream
media has kept them a secret during not one but two Bush presidencies.
But, in this internet age, how long can the mainstream media keep these and
many other scandals hidden from an increasingly computer-literate public?
These are not secrets, they are all there, online, just waiting for anyone
to dig them up with a few keystrokes.
Reading about the U.S. history of Eugenics, and the American elite's role
in aiding and abetting Hitler, shows that white power was never been just a
mere fringe movement in America. Indeed, the roots of American history
from the subjugation and/or genocide of aboriginal nations, to the
kidnapping and centuries-long enslavement of millions of Africans, are
firmly planted in the soil of "white power" racism. U.S. history is
replete with examples of terrorist acts inflicted by those of European
descent against people of colour. To deny this very real history of
terrorism in America is to be a revisionist. It is a form of Holocaust
Such denial, practiced every day by the mainstream media, should perhaps be
considered a hate crime, just as the denial of the millions killed by Nazism.
WAR IS TERRORISM
Simply put, terrorism is the use of violence against civilians for
political purposes. War, as Clausewitz aptly said, is a "continuation of
politics by other means." These definitions, coupled with the widely
acknowledged fact that 90% of the victims in war over the past few decades
have been civilians, means that war is terrorism.
So, who are the terrorists? To be objective, we must acknowledge that
anyone who commits terrorist acts is a terrorist. To have justice, no one
should be above the law. To be fair, all people should be held accountable
for committing crimes against peace, crimes against humanity and war
crimes. Justice is supposed to be blind. That means that regardless of
whether terrorists are acting as individuals, on behalf small groups, or
are in the employ of the armed forces of nation states, or even the lone,
rogue superpower, they must all be subject to the same laws.
When the U.S. military waged war in Vietnam and the neighbouring countries
of Laos and Cambodia, about 4 million people were killed. Most were
innocent civilians. This was not only war this was sheer terrorism.
Pondering this vast number of victims in Southeast Asia got me wondering:
How high would a pile of 4 million bodies be? To try to grasp the size of
this number of war dead, I calculated that a pile of three bodies would be
about one metre in height. Therefore, a pile of 4 million bodies would be
1,333 kilometres high! In disbelieve, I did the math again and again. It
I then wondered how tall the World Trade Center towers were. How many of
those buildings would have to have been piled one on top of the other to
reach the height of the pile of bodies generated by the US war in Southeast
Asia? The World Trade Center towers were about 415 metres tall. That
means that one would have to stack up 3,212 such towers to match the pile
of bodies killed in that particular US war.
The U.S. military has however been complicit in killing so many civilians
in other countries that it is extremely difficult even to list the
countries where huge acts of US-sponsored terror have occurred. A very
short list would have to include at least the following: 1 million in
Indonesia in 1965-1966; close to half a million in Central America during
the 1970s-1980s (particularly Guatemala and El Salvador); and 1.5 million
in Iraq due to the 1991 destruction of civilian infrastructure and the
economic blockade of food and medicine since then. Many thousands of
deaths in Iraq were the result of epidemics that quickly spread after the
US targeted and destroyed water purification facilities and sewage
treatment plants. This unleashed a biological war that killed a
disproportionate number of children.
To this list of US-sponsored acts of terrorism, we may soon have to add the
US-led war against Afghanistan. In fact, if what aid agencies are
predicting turns out to be correct, the new US war against Afghanistan will
move from terrorism to genocide. This winter in Afghanistan, the civilian
deaths resulting from starvation and exposure may far outnumber those
killed by the US bombing campaign.
FROM TERRORISM TO GENOCIDE: A NEW COLD WAR AND A NEW ORDER
This history of U.S. government initiatives and military support for
biowarfare throws a whole different light onto the threat of bioterrorism
that is now being covered by the mainstream media. Thanks largely to media
hype, opening the daily mail is now a scary thought for millions of North
Americans. However, when placed in its historical context, this threat
pales in comparison to the longstanding, official U.S. military use of
biological weapons at home and abroad.
It is interesting to note that according to "New Scientist," the spores
used in the recent US attacks are most likely from the "Ames" strain of
Anthrax that was developed by the U.S. military for their biological
weapons programs. <http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99991473>
In light of this information, and the fact that the US government has
admitted that it conducted numerous experiments involving the release of
biological weapons against unwitting U.S. citizens, we must dare to wonder
who is really behind the recent anthrax postings.
We may never know who mailed the U.S. anthrax, but one thing is certain,
this bio-scare is being used as part of the rationale for the U.S.
military's "defensive" war against Afghanistan. He anthrax-caused deaths
are also being used as part of the pretext for a massive legislative crack
down on civil liberties. "Homeland Security" is one element in the
beginning of a whole new Cold War and a New World Order.
The advice "follow the money" that was given to journalists, Woodward and
Bernstein, during their Watergate investigation is still valid. We must
always ask: who benefits from this war in Central Asia and the new Cold War?
* The CIA, and secret services around the world, including Canada's CSIS,
will receive sizable budget increases. Perhaps more importantly their
influence over foreign and domestic policies will be significantly enhanced.
* Military industries will see huge profits from the sale of new weapons
systems. Creating new and improved machines of war and keeping them in
operation has always been big business. It can only get bigger. Oil
companies that are seeking a pipeline from Central Asia through Afghanistan
and Pakistan to the Indian Ocean may see their dreams come true. See The
Hindu, October 13, 2001
"The New Great Game: Oil Politics in Central Asia" by Ted Rall, Alternet,
October 11, 2001 <http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID=11692>
* President Bush, who was "elected" in a virtual coup d'etat, is now more
popular than he could have imagined. (Mainstream media companies that paid
for a detailed analysis of voting irregularities have decided that, in
light of the new war, the results of their study will not be released.
This seems to confirm that George Bush did not really win the election.)
We had better very quickly deepen our political analysis of U.S. foreign
policy. We cannot afford to harbour any naiveté regarding the connections
between American secret services, military power and the corporate elite
that operate and benefit from the unjust global economic system.
For more information on the US Army use of biological weapons against
thousands of unsuspecting American citizens, here are three other
(1) The U.S. Biological Warfare and Biological Defense Programs (Chapter 19)
By DAVID R. FRANZ, D.V.M., PH.D.*; CHERYL D. PARROTT?; AND ERNEST T.
TAKAFUJI, M.D., M.P.H.?
(2) Findings & Conclusions:
DOD HAS DEMONSTRATED A PATTERN OF MISREPRESENTING THE DANGER OF VARIOUS
MILITARY EXPOSURES THAT CONTINUES TODAY.
(3) Secrets At Sea: Cloud Of Secrecy Lifting On Dugway Navy's Tests Of Germ
And Chemical Agents In The Pacific During Vietnam War (Sunday, October 22,
By Lee Davidson, Washington Correspondent