Very late in his life, Roy Sanders shared some
ideas with close family members and others about his then strong belief that the
universe had not been created through a so-called "Big Bang." Here is
some of what he wrote on this subject in 2013, at the age of 89:
Beliefs about the Origin of Universe:
The black-body radiation at 2.725K discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1956 was the only thing in the early universe. From it the earliest stars were formed from large collections of Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium. Among these early stars the black-body radiation divided into dark matter and dark energy which was spread evenly over the infinite space. At present even after all the billions of galaxies we see have formed the dark matter makes up 23.3% of the mass of the universe and the dark energy makes up 72.1% of the mass of the universe. The stars in all the galaxies make up only about 5% of the mass. How does this dark material affect what happens in the universe?
Any radiation from a star is slowed by gravitational attraction to the dark materials as it passes through them. This slowing causes the appearance of a red shift. The farther away the star is, the greater the red shift is and this is true no matter which direction one looks. Thus it appears as though the whole universe is expanding away from the observer. It is my belief that the universe is not expanding and that the whole effect is an optical illusion caused by the slowing of the radiation by the gravitational attraction of the radiation to the dark matter and dark energy through which it passes.
I believe that the radiation as it passes through the dark energy and dark matter is attracted to each particle in turn and will wiggle back and forth in a way that will make it travel farther and thus take it more time to get where it is going.
My only use for the unbelievable Big Bang was that my disbelief in it was enough to cause me to find out what was really happening.
I hope this helps.
Here is something else that he wrote on this subject:
An observed star seems to be moving away because of the observed red shift. This red shift is caused by the slowing of the radiation as it passes through the dark matter and dark energy in the space, The millions or billions of quanta in the radiation are attracted gravitationally to the millions or billions of quanta of dark matter in the space. This creates a zigzag motion of the radiation of the many parts of the star's radiation. Thus the composite radiation must travel much farther to pass the dark matter and is slowed down creating a red shift. It must be slowed by a zigzag motion because if there was just a straight attraction there would then an equal repulsion and there would be no slowing. This proposed zigzag motion has not been proposed before this time. It does explain what is observed in the simplest way. According to Occam's Law it should receive consideration since it is the simplest explanation for what is observed. If there is no Dark Matter or Dark radiation in that part of the universe the radiation will not be slowed. In some parts of the Universe all the Dark Matter and Dark radiation has been attracted to the billions of stars as for example in the Milky Way.
This dark matter and dark energy came from the energy which was discovered by Penzias and Wilson when they were testing an especially sensitive receiver in 1956. This radiation was black-body radiation at 2.725K. This microwave energy was in my theory the first thing in the infinite universe. From it everything else in the infinite universe was evolutionally produced. The energy in it was very weak but it filled the whole infinite universe.
This dark energy and dark mass still between them have a mass equal to 95% of all the stars we see in the sky. That is our universe. We cannot observe the potentially thousands of other universes in the infinite space which may be very similar to ours.
The first stars were formed after
Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium atoms turned into molecules which with
the aid of the Higgs Boson had enough mass to amass into large enough
blobs to create enough pressure to start to glow as the first red stars.
From these stars all of the early stars in the universe were formed. The
Planck telescope has recently taken pictures of such stars beginning to