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Defunding the Myths and Cults of
Cold War Canada:
Ongoing state support for East European
émigré groups with deep fascist roots

(Collaborators, Crusades and Coverups in an era of “truth and reconciliation”)

Issue #70, Press for Conversion! (Spring 2021)
of the
Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT)
Read a summary of this issue            See articles on the state funding of fascist-linked groups

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Table of Contents

Canada’s anti-Red, Cold War propaganda in context
L.B.Pearson: Godfather of Cda’s Cold War on the new "Red" enemy
Pearson College and NATO’s United World Colleges
The CBC’s “Voice of Canada” --  Weapon of Cold War propaganda
‘Voice of America’ & the CIA’s ‘Radio Free Europe’ & “Radio Liberty’
L.B.Pearson: Groomed by King, St. Laurent & the ‘Big antiRed Machine'
Mackenzie King gave shocking praise for Hitler until the eve of war in 1939
Liberal immigration: "None is too many" and Too many is not enough
Why did King have such adoring admiration for Nazi Germany's dictator?
King loved Hitler’s hate speech against “Jewish international Bolshevism”

“Captive Nations” and their "Black-Ribbon-Day" crusade
The ignored historical context of “Black Ribbon Day” (Aug. 23, 1939)
“Captive Nations”: Nazi trope to CIA meme to Cold-War trump card
The “Captive Nations” conceit in Nazi propaganda
John Diefenbaker: Strong voice at the UN for “Captive Nations” bloc
The BRD campaign: Canada’s top Cold War propaganda export
The late Cold War context of the BRD crusade
Ongoing propaganda of the former "Captive Nations":
    (1) Canada’s anti-communism monument and (2) the Magnitsky laws

Far-right roots:
East European émigré groups in Canada & abroad

Estonian Central Council in Canada
   Estonia glorifies Nazi veterans as ‘freedom fighters’
Estonian World Council
Lithuanian Canadian Community and the Lithuanian World Community
   Lithuanian nationalists now have 'freedom' to glorify Nazi heritage
Latvian National Federation in Canada
World Federation of Free Latvians
Slovak World Congress and the Canadian Slovak League
Council of Free Czechoslovakia & Czechoslovak Nat'l Assoc. of Cda.

Ukrainian linchpin of Cda’s postwar, far-right diaspora
Krakow and Ottawa, 1940: "A Tale of Two Cities," and two UCCs:
(1) Germany’s Ukrainian Central Cttee. and (2) Canada's Ukrainian Canadian Cttee.

The Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations & World AntiCommunist League
Yaroslav Stetsko: Leader of proNazi Ukraine, 1941

State-funded centres of Canada’s Bandera cult and its Bandera youth
Roman Shukhevych: Assassin, terrorist, war criminal and cult hero

Getting them young: Instilling Ukrainian patriotism in children and youth
Plast recruited for Nazi’s Waffen SS Galicia; now recruits for Ukraine
From Chomiak to Freeland: “keep that flame alive”
Chrystia Freeland: “Accidental journalist” or groomed for the job?
Myron Kuropas: Downplaying Holocaust; Exaggerating Holodomor
Turning from same page: Freeland wrote for pro-fascist publications
Yuri Shymko: From Bandera youth leader, MPP & MP, to elder statesman
Lisa Shymko: In the footsteps of family, community & far-right, war heroes
Rubbing political shoulders with the ABN in Toronto

The struggle continues...                                            Abridged Index

Slovak World Congress (SWC)
& Canadian Slovak League

By Richard

(Click here for a pdf to see this article as it appears in print)

The Slovak World Congress (SWC) was founded in Toronto in 1971 by former officials of the Nazi puppet state of "Independent" Slovakia (1939-45). Affiliated with the profascist Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations (ABN),1 the SWC was "composed of Nazi collaborationists and their progeny," said journalist Jack Anderson. The SWC, he said, was "the Slovakian chapter" of the World AntiCommunist League.2 Active in the CIA-backed "Captive Nations" movement, SWC covered up wartime Slovakia’s subservience to the Nazis and supported the Black Ribbon Day movement.3

Chief among the SWC’s Nazi collaborators was Jozef Kirschbaum who fled to Canada in 1948 after being sentenced to ten years in a Czechoslovak prison, plus ten in a labour camp.4 Kirschbaum was key to the Hlinka-Party regime of Catholic priest, Jozef Tiso. As Slovakia’s president, Tiso enforced Nazi-like laws that deprived Jews of their jobs, possessions and rights. Tiso’s regime also sent 75,000 of Slovakia’s 90,000 Jews to Nazi death camps.5

Jozef Kirschbaum, who was a
key figure in Slovakia's clerico-fascist wartime regime, fled to Canada in 1948.  For the next 50 years he was a leader of the
Slovak World Congress and
the Canadian Slovak League

Sharing the Nazi’s hatred for Judeo-Bolshevism, Tiso’s regime vowed to "fight against the Marxist-Jewish ideology of disorganization and violence."6

Sheltered by Canada until his death in 2001, Kirschbaum led the SWC and its affiliate, the Canadian Slovak League (CSL). For decades they whitewashed Slovak fascism and hid their movement’s obeisance to Nazism. Forty years after WWII, the SWC finally issued a statement on the Holocaust at its 1987 assembly in Toronto (attended by PM Brian Mulroney and Ontario Premier Bill Davis). Denying the Tiso regime’s role in decimating Slovak Jewry, it pushed the myth that this genocide was the fault of "misguided individuals of the Slovak regime."7

Such myths of Nazi Slovakian innocence have long been spread by key Canadian academics. As a history professor in Montreal and Toronto, and co-founder of the University of Ottawa’s Chair in Slovak History, Kirschbaum himself led the cover up.

His effort to shape Slovak historical memory is continued by his son Stanislav Kirschbaum, a professor at York University. A graduate of Canada’s National Defense College, Stanislav is highly respected in some circles as an expert on communism and Central European "security issues." Since the 1960s, his work has cleansed Slovakia’s role in genocide and honoured his father’s collaboration with Tiso’s fascist regime. His 1983 book, Slovak Politics, was subtitled Essays on Slovak History in Honour of Joseph M. Kirschbaum.

Both father and son had Slovak history texts published by the SWC. And both worked with its Canadian affiliate, the CSL. In 1962, when Jozef edited CSL’s pro-Tiso organ, Kanadsky Slovak, Canadian Jewish groups urged the RCMP to investigate his Nazi past and extradite him.9 His son has chaired Kanadsky Slovak’s editorial committee10 since 2010 when it ran an article by his father. Recalling Jozef’s "pleasant memories" of the 1930s, it used a photo of him with Father Andrej Hlinka, the priest/banker who founded the Hlinka Party. "We were a tolerant, friendly generation," Jozef wrote, "many [were] nationally conscious and willing to put their knowledge and strength into the service of the nation and the church."11

Stanislav Kirschbaum, History professor, York University.

Since the 1960s, his academic work has sought to cleanse Slovakia of its role in genocide and to honour his father's complicity in Tiso’s clericofascist regime.

In a Slovak history text dedicated to his father, Stanislav said Jozef Kirschbaum cofounded SWC and gave it "intellectual and organizational leadership."12 In 1970, at its preparatory meeting in New York, the elder Kirschbaum became SWC’s executive vice president. Once affirmed at the SWC’s first assembly in Toronto (1971), he kept this position until 198813 when two Canadian journalists finally exposed his Nazi past.14

While Tiso was executed for war crimes in 1947 by Czechoslovakia’s elected communist government, the SWC and CSL hailed him as a national hero. On the 50th anniversary of his death, CSL Toronto held a Sunday church event to honour him. Jozef Kirschbaum gave the commemorative speech. The CSL raised funds to help buy Tiso’s home for use as a museum to exalt his memory.

Involved in that project were various leaders including CSL president Stephen Kovacic,15 who had represented the CSL at ABN-Canada’s 1986 conference in Toronto.  At that event, featuring CIA-backed Nicaraguan and Afghan terror groups, as well as many others created and led by Nazi collaborators, the CSL’s Kovacic said:

It is my honour, by this presentation to join the common fight of the enslaved nations in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe and to give any possible support to achieve our common goal...16

War crimes of SWC leaders

Read more about how this vile ideology was embraced by:
       • Nazi Germany
       • Mackenzie King
       • Yaroslav Stetsko

In the late 1930s, as a law student and Hlinka Party organizer at Bratislava University, Kirschbaum edited its antisemitic/antiMarxist publications. He also led the Hlinka Guard’s "elite detachment" of thugs on campus, the "Academic Guard" (1938-40).. After leading attacks on Jews by this band of SS-like "Brown Shirts," Kirschbaum met Adolph Eichmann. Hitler had sent Eichmann to Slovakia in late 1938 to help orchestrate the Tiso regime’s role in the Holocaust.17

In 1938-39, Kirschbaum met the Nazi elite, including: Hitler, Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Werner Göttsche and Edmund Vessemeyer.18  Kirschbaum was the Hlinka Party Sec. Gen. (1939-40), a Slovak diplomat in Rome (1941-42) and its Charge d’Affairs in Switzerland (1942-45).19 He served the American Slovak League and the CSL in Bern where the UN International Refugee Organization "was convinced ... to accept as refugees [to the US and Canada] Slovak exiles linked to the wartime Slovak state, who fled the communists in 1945."20

Kirschbaum’s career was aided by his friend and law prof, Ferdinand Durcansky, who led the Slovak delegations to meet Hitler that created Nazi Slovakia. The UN listed Durcansky as a Category A war criminal in 1946 and, in 1947, he was sentenced to death in absentia by Czechoslovakia’s elected communist government.21 Like Kirschbaum, Durcansky was key to creating the SWC and was "one of its main members."22

Ferdinand Durcansky, Jozef Tiso and Adolph Hitler

"Secret" US government files, declassified by the 1998 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, reveal Durcansky’s work with the Nazis and CIA.23 A 1959 document calling him "an outspoken opponent against Communism and a reliable member of Western ideals," said they had "no derogatory information" about him.24 A 1954 document however detailed how in 1939, Durcansky "placed himself at disposal of Hitler" by sending forced labourers to Germany, surrendering factories and mineral resources to the Nazis, and allowing them to build army bases in Slovakia for the Operation-Barbarossa invasion of the USSR. After joining the Hlinka Party in 1927, he created "fascist, antisemitic" Nazi-funded publications (1936-38) and led the Hlinka Guard. While his cabinet posts included Justice, Health, Transportation and Public Works, he rose to be Nazi Slovakia’s Foreign Minister and Deputy PM. Durcansky also owned drug factories in Slovakia, and later in Argentina. In 1945, the Nazis seized 150 kgs of morphine that he was taking out of Slovakia.25

Nazi apologists in the Cold War

After WWII, Durcansky and other fascists moved to Rome and worked to "seize power in Slovakia with Durcansky as premiere." In 1947, a commission of Czechoslovak’s communist government, which was democratically elected in 1946, exposed Durcansky’s coup plot.26 In response, the communist government began to purge fascist conspirators, and mobilized a massive groundswell of public support for a counter coup that consolidated their power in 1948.

Durcansky, like Eichmann, used Vatican networks to escape to Argentina. Then, with help from UK intelligence, Durcansky went to Toronto (1950-51). Although he later worked for the ABN in Britain and Germany, Durcansky gave "antisemitic speeches in Canada well into the 1970s" for the SWC. He also "travelled freely in and out of Canada, despite the fact that the government was fully aware of his war crimes."27

Major General Reinhard Gehlen

While in Germany, Durcansky was ABN chairman and advised the CIA’s "Upswing" program (1952-58).28 Upswing was the US-led spy agency in West Germany,29 centred around the CIA’s "Gehlen Org." Its first leader (1946-56) was Major General Reinhard Gehlen, who led West Germany’s BND spy agency (1956-68). During WWII, he ran the Nazi network of fascist East European armies (1942-45.)30 It was united in 1943, as the Committee of Subjugated Nations, by Stepan Bandera’s Ukrainian nationalists and later became the ABN.

In 1963, the German-Slovakian Society celebrated the 25th anniversary of Tiso’s regime. Durcansky, then-president of the ABN Peoples’ Council, was their main speaker in Munich and Stuttgart.31 When founded in 1967, Durcansky was on the European Freedom Council (EFC) Information Committee. This ABN/OUN(B) front promoted armed attacks inside the USSR. EFC leaders included ABN president Yaroslav Stetsko.32 Durcansky also attended CSL events, like its 1969 convention banquet, where he sat at its "head table."33

Jozef Kirschbaum’s SWC-publications concealed the ties of Slovak nationalists with Nazis and the CIA. One collected talks from the conference he organised for the SWC’s founding event in Toronto (1971).34 Durcansky’s talk called for creating a Slovak state along "ethnogenetical" lines.35 Kirschbaum also organized a conference at the SWC’s 1975 congress in Rome which the ABN praised as a "very well organized," "brilliant symposium."36

Canada’s billionaire "Uranium King,"
Stefan Roman, who helped Jozef
Kirschbaum settle in Canada, "was the
main political force behind" the SWC’s
creation, "its first president [1970-88]
and main financial supporter."

"The leadership of the SWC never dissociated itself from the Tiso regime, and its complicity in the Holocaust" said Tomas Sniegon in 2014.37 This Swedish historian said Canada’s billionaire "Uranium King," Stefan Roman, who helped Kirschbaum settle in Canada, "was the main political force behind" SWC’s creation, "its first president [1970-88] and main financial supporter."38

In 1987, Roman’s "generous support ... set up" Black Ribbon Day [BRD] "committees in London, Munich, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Paris and Vienna," said the BRD German-Estonian founder Markus Hess.39

In 1945, Roman had coauthored a petition to oppose the arrest of Tiso and other Slovak leaders.40 Soon after launching SWC in 1971, Roman lauded Tiso as "a man who confirmed his love to the nation by the highest sacrifice."41 By the mid 1980s, as SWC president, Roman received "repeated appeals" from the National Holocaust Survivors Association and its Slovak branch, to get the SWC "to condemn the pro-Nazi puppet regime in Slovakia." The SWC refused.42

An apologist for Nazi Slovakia until his 1988 death, Roman was made a Knight Commander, Order of St. Gregory, by Pope John XXIII (1963). He also received the Order of Canada from Gov. Gen. Sauvé (1987) and posthumously the highest "state honour" by Slovak Pres. Michal Kovác, the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross (1995).43

Another SWC cofounder was Josef Mikus, a "known anti-Semite"44 who represented the SWC in the World AntiCommunist League.45 During WWII, Mikus was a diplomat to Rome for Nazi Slovakia. In postwar Czechoslovakia, after being briefly arrested for "ideological" reasons, he moved to Washington, DC, where he taught history and worked for the US State Department.46

Catholic priest/academic Milan Durica was a lifetime SWC member who served on its Advisory Board.47 In 1997 the Slovak Academia of Sciences criticized his EU-funded, Slovak history text. They were outraged that he depicted Tiso’s regime as "saviours of the Jewish population" who ensured "daily life in the Jewish work camps" was filled with "gaiety and happiness."48 Durica, who said Kirschbaum was "a man with a clean record as a Slovak patriot,"49 supported the movement to canonize Tiso as a saint.50

John Hvasta was the Slovak delegate to the ABN’s US chapter (1966)51 and Gen. Secretary of the SWC’s American Council (1981).52 After WWII he worked for the US consulate in Prague and was sentenced to 25 years for espionage. After escaping prison he fled to the US, studied filmmaking and became an anticommunist propagandist. During his long PR career, Hvasta promoted far-right Ukrainian ethnonationalism53 and the KKK. US Federal Elections Commission documents show that Hvasta’s PR firm was paid to provide a mailing list to "the 1988 Presidential Campaign of former Ku Klux Klan leader and white supremacist David Duke."54 (In 2005, Duke received a PhD from a private Ukrainian university that is "a center of antisemitic teaching."55)

Canadian government support

In 1948-49, Canada’s Liberal government brought in 1,500 Slovaks, including convicted war criminals. Officials, said historian Jan Raska, "were keen to resettle anti-communist refugees from Czechoslovakia who would further legitimize the state’s opposition towards Communism."56 "[P]olitical refugees who espoused anti-Soviet and anti-communist sentiments," he said, were supported by vote-seeking officials who warned

the public of the impending threat posed by domestic Communist sympathizers and Soviet agents to the country’s predominantly Christian, democratic, and middle class values.

Members, Slovak Autonomous Region government,
from left, Prime Minister Jozef Tiso,
Ferdinand Durcansky (Minister for Transport),
Karol Sidor (
Minister for Slovak Affairs), Dec. 3, 1938.

In 1949, when immigration officials denied Sidor’s move to Canada, Vatican representatives of Pope Pius XII recruited
Liberal Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent (a Catholic) to secure
his entry. Canadian "security" and "intelligence" agencies saw
Sidor as an asset to combat left-wing Slovak "subversives."

Their shared social phobias led to "increasing collaboration between Canadian officials and Czech and Slovak anti-communist refugees,"57 even though authorities knew they included top Nazi collaborators. A case in point was Karol Sidor, "founder and first commander of the pro-Nazi, paramilitary Hlinka Guard" who was fascist Slovakia’s "premier and minister of the interior" in 1939.58 Before the war, as a Hlinka Party politician, Sidor demanded "that Slovakia and Carpatho-Rus be ‘cleansed’ of their Jews, because they are communists."59 Sidor was later Tiso’s ambassador to the Vatican (1939-45).60 In 1947, Czechoslovakia sentenced him in absentia to 20 years in prison.

When Canadian immigration officials denied Sidor’s entry, Vatican representatives of Pope Pius XII contacted a Catholic Canadian with great clout: Liberal Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent. He

blamed Canadian immigration officials for the delay in Sidor’s case. Security screening of Sidor and his family was subsequently ignored, and he and his family were permitted entry into Canada in November 1949.61

Security/intelligence agencies saw Sidor as an asset in their "endeavour to combat subversive elements among all Slovaks in Canada."62 The Liberal government continued to support Canada’s far-right Slovaks. For example, in 1953, St. Laurent, several of his cabinet ministers and 25 MPs attended a Canadian Slovak League (CSL) banquet.63

Until his death in 1953, Sidor continued to "combat subversive elements" (ie, Reds not Nazis) through groups like the pro-Tiso CSL.64 In 1950, on a US speaking tour, Sidor was "protested by various Slovak and Jewish groups" for being a "Nazi leader," but papers said the RCMP was "unworried."65 In 1951, when Sidor told CSL Winnipeg "to stand united against the intrigues of Communism working secretly or openly for the Kremlin," the press did not mention his role in Nazi Slovakia.66 Soon thereafter, an Ontario paper showed Sidor posing with Canada’s smiling Health Minister Paul Martin, Sr.67

Jozef Kirschbaum

When meeting with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Kirschbaum said Canada should impose "compulsory military service." This, said Czech-Canadian newspaper editor Ales Brezina, met with "polite applause" because Kirschbaum was such "a respected man in Canada." He lead Canadian Slovaks, the rightwing Ethnic Federation of Canada and the Canada Ethnic Press Federation.68  The latter, "an expressly anti-Communist organisation," was used to give government "funding to anti-Communist ‘ethnic’ associations at the national level."69 Praised by government, media and academe, "Kirschbaum continued to collect one distinction after another," including "one ... awarded him by a smiling P.E. Trudeau."70

Trudeau’s government used Kirschbaum as an "expert" to prepare for the 1975 Helsinki Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Soviets criticised the role of fascists in this process by saying that

the secret trump which they played during the preparatory stages of the conference was Jozef Kirschbaum, ... a leading exponent of the fascist Slovak State during WWII, who took part in the Geneva negotiations about the drafting of the document and the organization of the Helsinki conference as an expert of the Canadian Government.71

The Liberals valued Kirschbaum’s input on NATO enough that he attended a NATO meeting in Brussels with Mitchell Sharp,72 Pierre Trudeau’s foreign minister (1968-74).

In 1983, on Kirschbaum’s 70th birthday, a "banquet honoring his work with ethnic groups was attended by MPs, MPPs and senators."73 The Jerusalem Post Magazine juxtaposed Kirschbaum’s Nazi past with the great "respect" he was receiving in Canada along with "a host of awards and honours."

 In October 1987, Brian Mulroney became the first prime minister to attend the Slovak World Congress, which was held that year in Toronto
Click here, or the image above, to watch excerpts.

"They include the venerable Cross of Merit of the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem Knights of Malta [11th century Catholic crusaders], bestowed on ... his 70th birthday, as well as memorabilia and diplomas from ...government representatives, MPs, MLAs, senators and, indeed, the former Canadian prime minister, Pierre Elliott Trudeau. He was even selected to accompany Pope John Paul II when the pontiff unveiled a new Slovak cathedral [purchased by SWC president Stefan Roman] in Toronto in 1984."74

In 1987 Brian Mulroney was the first prime minister to attend a SWC general assembly. Former Ontario premier Bill Davis was also there. Mulroney shared the Toronto podium with SWC president Stefan Roman, who asked the crowd to "pray for Canada and offer your very thoughtful praise for the Conservative party and for our Prime Minister."
75 Roman, whose talk also praised the "Free World," was described by author Paul McKay as "the apostle of unfettered free enterprise." But, having "collected more than $2-billion worth of federal and provincial subsidies and sweetheart deals over three decades," Roman was hardly "an avowed foe of government intervention."76

Cold-War media propaganda

By 1988, the elite’s ties to Kirschbaum were unraveling. For 40 years, dozens of news stories ignored his Nazism and boosted toxic anticommunism.77 One 1950 story praised "Czechoslovakian leaders who gave their lives for the freedom of their country." Its prime example was "Joseph Tiso, president of the Slovak Republic ... who was hanged by the Communists in 1947."78 A 1953 article ignoring Slovakia’s Nazi past, lamented that it "enjoyed only six years of Independence" (as a Nazi puppet state, 1939-45). It also pushed Kirschbaum’s call to "Fight Reds" and win "Slovakia’s freedom from Communist and Czech domination."79

In 1962, Canadian Jewish News reporting on Kirschbaum’s Nazi past called him "one of the most ferocious authors" of Slovakia’s "criminal regime."80 Papers then used his line that it was all "a pure lie." One story on these "allegations" said the "RCMP ... had no interest in Dr. Kirschbaum."81

Kirschbaum later said that his threats to sue a paper in the 1960s led to its "long apology." The mass media promoted Kirschbaum for another 20 years. In 1983, when a Czech cable TV show exposed his Nazi links, "Kirschbaum threatened legal action." The Ottawa station put restrictions on the show and forced its host to apologize. It was aired "about 14 times."82 In 1988, a Kingston paper exposed Kirschbaum’s Nazi past, but the article was disqualified from the Canadian Bar Association’s media awards by "a potential law suit" that was never filed.83

When Kirschbaum finally fell from grace, other SWC voices still got positive press. In 1988, Kirschbaum was replaced as SWC vice president by former Slovak hockey star, Marian Stastny. An article pictured him hugging his young sons at "the annual Black Ribbon Day [BRD] Rally on Parliament Hill," an antiSoviet protest staged by the SWC and other "groups representing ‘victims’ of Marxist regimes."84 While the BRD movement is said to oppose communism and Nazism, the émigré groups that remain the driving force behind this ongoing Cold-War propaganda, still exalt their Nazi-linked founders and leaders as heroes.

Making Slovakia fascist... again

The Christian fundamentalist People’s Party - Our Slovakia (PPOS) is on the rise, having won 17 seats in the 2020 election. Despite its cult-like glorification of Slovakia’s clericofascist WWII leaders, Andrej Hlinka and Josef Tiso, the party was welcomed into Slovakia's new coalition government.

The PPOS vice chair heads a committee overseeing the National Security Bureau.

Party leader, Marian Kotleba, has said Jews are "devils in human skin."

The party's leaders include Holocaust deniers and admirers of Hitler.

The party spokesman was the frontman for two neoNazi, skinhead bands: "White Resistance" and "Death to Jews."

One of the PPOS candidates was convicted of beating up a Black man while shouting racist slurs.

PPOS urges police crackdowns on "gypsies" and an end to immigration.

References and notes

1. ABN Correspondence noted that SWC "founding member" and SWC-UK leader Oktav Bazovsky, represented Slovaks at ABN events, 1957-87: Jan-Feb 1957, p.6; May-Jun 1987, p.37; Nov-Dec 1990, pp.47-8.

2. Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League, 1986, p.45.

3. Edward Soltys, Black Ribbon Day, 2014, p.119.

4. Scott Anderson, "Local Slovak League pays homage to wartime figure who collaborated with Hitler," Now, Jun. 5-11, 1997.

5. Lucy Hawidowicz, The War against the Jews, 1975.

6. Peter Adler, "Past Comes Back to Haunt Former Slovak Fascist," Jerusalem Post, Nov.25, 1988, p.6.

7. Livia Rothkirchen, "Czechoslovakia," The World Reacts to the Holocaust, 1996, p.188.

8. Biography, Stanislav J. Kirschbaum

9. "Asks for Police Probe of Nazi Collaborator," American Israelite, Aug, 23, 1962, p.7.

10. Archives, Kanadsky Slovak

11. Jozef Kirschbaum, "Why and how I did not become a priest," Kanadský Slovák, Jun. 5, 2010, p.4.

12. Stanislav Kirschbaum, Historical Dictionary of Slovakia, 2014, pp.xlix, 302.

The author dedicated this book to his "parents, especially my father, who worked tirelessly for Slovakia and the Slovak people at home and abroad, above all in Canada."

13. Stanislav Kirschbaum, The A to Z of Slovakia, 2006, p.162.

14. Paul McKay and Beppi Crosariol, "The Kirschbaum File," Whig-Standard, Dec.10, 1988.

15. Anderson 1997, op. cit.

16. ABN Correspondence, Jan/Feb 1987, p.34.

17. "Kirschbaum, Slovakia’s Aide of Eichmann in Toronto," Canadian Jewish News, July 27, 1962, pp.1, 8.

18. CIA "Final Interrogation Report, July 24, 1945, Werner Göttsche," p.7

19. Kirschbaum 2014, op. cit., p.162.

20. Michael Cude and Ellen Paul, "Czechoslovakia," East Central European Migrations during the Cold War, 2019, p.107.

21. Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, the Nazis, and Soviet In- telligence, 1991, pp.221.

22. Tomas Sniegon, Vanished History: The Holocaust in Czech and Slovak Historical Culture, 2014, p.79.

23. Jerome Legge, Jr., "Collaboration, Intelligence and the Holocaust: Ferdinand Durcanský, Slovak Nationalism, and the Gehlen Organization," Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Oct. 1, 2018.

24. "Field File X/Durcansky, Ferdinand," Mar. 31, 1959, p.1.

25. Info. from Biographic Intelligence Div. Files, Dept of State, Sep. 1954.

26. Aarons and Loftus, ibid.

27. bid., pp.221-22..

28. "Field File X/Durcansky...," op. cit.

29. "Cryptonyms & Terms..."

30. Carl Oglesby, "Reinhard Gehlen: The Secret Treaty of Fort Hunt," Covert Action Information Bulletin, Fall 1990, pp.8-16.

31. "Celebration of the 25th anniversary of Slovakia’s Declaration of Independence," ABN Correspondence, May-June 1964, p.36.

32. "European Freedom Council formed at Munich Meeting," Svoboda, Ukrainian Weekly, July 15, 1967, p.1.

33. "Slovak Role in Canadian ‘Mosaic’ Lauded by Munro," Welland Tribune, Aug. 5, 1969.

34. Joseph Kirschbaum, ed., Slovakia in the 19th and 20th Centuries, 1973, p.151.

35. Russ Bellant, Old Nazis, the New Right and the Republican Party: Domestic fascist networks and their effect on US Cold War Politics, 1991, p.15.

36. "Slovak World Congress held at Rome," ABN Correspondence, Mar.-Apr. 1976, p.6.

37. Sniegon, op. cit.

38. Kirschbaum 2014, op. cit., p.302.

39. Markus Hess, "Preface," in Soltys, op. cit., p.23.

40. Jack Anderson, "Is Kemp with Wrong crowd," Indiana Gazette, Nov. 23, 2005, p.2.

41. Sniegon, op. cit., p.79.

42. Ben Gallob, "Urgent Appeals by Holocaust Survivors...," Jewish Telegraphic Agency, Aug. 10, 1984, p.4.

43. "Stephen B. Roman – the American Dream in Canada," Sept.-Oct. 2016.

44. Sniegon, op. cit., p.86

45. Anderson and Anderson, p.45

46. Obituary, Washington Post, June 11, 2005.

47. "Historian Milan S. Ïurica is 90 years old," Hlavné Správy, Aug. 14, 2015.

48. Robin Shepherd, Czechoslovakia: The Velvet Revolution and Beyond, 2000. p.129.

49. Sniegon, op. cit., p.81.

50. James M. Ward, Priest, Politician, Collaborator: Jozef Tiso and the Making of Fascist Slovakia, 2013, pp.278-79.

51. ABN Correspondence, Mar.-Apr. 1966, p.36.

52. "Rep. Ritter scores Soviets for invasion of Afghanistan," Ukrainian Weekly, Dec. 6, 1981, p.3.

53. "Color Film on Ukrainian Struggle for Independence," Svoboda, Jan. 30, 1960, p.3.

"Ukrainian Youth League of North America Foundation," Svoboda, Dec. 9, 1961, p.3.

54. Report, US FEC, Jul. 1-Sep. 30, 1987, cited by Bellant, op. cit., p.93.

55. David Duke, Southern Poverty Law Centre

56. Jan Raska, Freedom’s Voices: Czech & Slovak Immigration to Canada during the Cold War, 2013, pp.294-95.

57. Ibid., p.229.

58. Wallace P. Sillanpoa, The Chief Rabbi, the Pope & the Holocaust: An Era in Vatican-Jewish Relations, 1992, p.87.

59. Gila Fatran, "Slovakia’s Righteous among Nations."

60. CIA, "Durcansky, Summary of Available Personality Info.," Nov.2, 1954, p.5

61. Stanislav Kirschbaum 2014, op. cit., p.147.

62. Raska, op. cit., p.147.

63. Mark Stolarik, "Slovak communities in the Ottawa Valley," in Ottawa: Making a Capital, 2001, p.270

64. "Montreal Speakers Address Windsor Unit of Slovak League," Windsor Star, May 29, 1950, p.18.

"Slovaks Urged to Fight Reds," Windsor Star, Aug. 5, 1953, p.18.

65. "RCMP Unworried," Montréal Gazette, Aug. 25, 1950, p.13.

66. "Urges Stand Against Reds," Star-Phoenix, Jan. 30, 1951, p.14.

67. "Slovak Day celebrated at Church Picnic," Windsor Star, Jul.9, 1951, p.12.

68. Ales Brezina, "Canadian Export of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice," Respekt, Sep. 5 1990, p.9. (Trans. from Czech by the US Joint Publications Research Service, JPRS, "a unit within the CIA.")

69. Linda Blanshay, The Nationalisation of Ethnicity, 2001, pp.212, 227.

70. Brezina, op. cit., p.3.

71. Rudolf Nittmann, "Who is Afraid of Relaxation," Pravda, Nov. 26, 1976, p.6. (Trans. by the CIA’s JPRS.)

72. Post-War Nazi Continuum, ibid (see photo)

73. Kelly Egan, "Nazi allegation threatens ethnic TV show," Ottawa Citizen, Oct. 4, 1983, p.17.

74. Adler, op. cit.

75. VOS Oct. 1987, Slovak World Congress, Toronto-Youtube

76. "Steven Roman, Canada’s uranium king," Northern Miner, Nov. 26, 1990.

77. Author’s collection of 24 press articles on J.Kirschbaum (1950-89)

78. "Montreal Speakers ...," op. cit.

79. "Slovaks Urged ...," op. cit.

80. "Kirschbaum, Slovakia’s...," op. cit.

81. "Toronto man denies ties with Nazis," Vancouver Sun, Jul.27, 1962, p.45.

82. Egan, op. cit.

83. Robert Sibley, "Paper raps bar association awards," Ottawa Citizen, Apr. 20, 1989. p.5.

84. Vernon Smith, "Soviet invasion of homeland recalled by former NHL star," Ottawa Citizen, Aug. 24, 1988, p.6.

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