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Defunding the Myths and Cults of
Cold War Canada:
Ongoing state support for East European
émigré groups with deep fascist roots

(Collaborators, Crusades and Coverups in an era of “truth and reconciliation”)

Issue #70, Press for Conversion! (Spring 2021)
of the
Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade (COAT)
Read a summary of this issue            See articles on the state funding of fascist-linked groups

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Defunding Cold War Canada

Table of Contents

Canada’s anti-Red, Cold War propaganda in context
L.B.Pearson: Godfather of Cda’s Cold War on the new "Red" enemy
Pearson College and NATO’s United World Colleges
The CBC’s “Voice of Canada” --  Weapon of Cold War propaganda
‘Voice of America’ & the CIA’s ‘Radio Free Europe’ & “Radio Liberty’
L.B.Pearson: Groomed by King, St. Laurent & the ‘Big antiRed Machine'
Mackenzie King gave shocking praise for Hitler until the eve of war in 1939
Liberal immigration: "None is too many" and Too many is not enough
Why did King have such adoring admiration for Nazi Germany's dictator?
King loved Hitler’s hate speech against “Jewish international Bolshevism”

“Captive Nations” and their "Black-Ribbon-Day" crusade
The ignored historical context of “Black Ribbon Day” (Aug. 23, 1939)
“Captive Nations”: Nazi trope to CIA meme to Cold-War trump card
The “Captive Nations” conceit in Nazi propaganda
John Diefenbaker: Strong voice at the UN for “Captive Nations” bloc
The BRD campaign: Canada’s top Cold War propaganda export
The late Cold War context of the BRD crusade
Ongoing propaganda of the former "Captive Nations":
    (1) Canada’s anti-communism monument and (2) the Magnitsky laws

Far-right roots:
East European émigré groups in Canada & abroad

Estonian Central Council in Canada
   Estonia glorifies Nazi veterans as ‘freedom fighters’
Estonian World Council
Lithuanian Canadian Community and the Lithuanian World Community
   Lithuanian nationalists now have 'freedom' to glorify Nazi heritage
Latvian National Federation in Canada
World Federation of Free Latvians
Slovak World Congress and the Canadian Slovak League
Council of Free Czechoslovakia & Czechoslovak Nat'l Assoc. of Cda.

Ukrainian linchpin of Cda’s postwar, far-right diaspora
Krakow and Ottawa, 1940: "A Tale of Two Cities," and two UCCs:
(1) Germany’s Ukrainian Central Cttee. and (2) Canada's Ukrainian Canadian Cttee.

The Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations & World AntiCommunist League
Yaroslav Stetsko: Leader of proNazi Ukraine, 1941

State-funded centres of Canada’s Bandera cult and its Bandera youth
Roman Shukhevych: Assassin, terrorist, war criminal and cult hero

Getting them young: Instilling Ukrainian patriotism in children and youth
Plast recruited for Nazi’s Waffen SS Galicia; now recruits for Ukraine
From Chomiak to Freeland: “keep that flame alive”
Chrystia Freeland: “Accidental journalist” or groomed for the job?
Myron Kuropas: Downplaying Holocaust; Exaggerating Holodomor
Turning from same page: Freeland wrote for pro-fascist publications
Yuri Shymko: From Bandera youth leader, MPP & MP, to elder statesman
Lisa Shymko: In the footsteps of family, community & far-right, war heroes
Rubbing political shoulders with the ABN in Toronto

The struggle continues...                                            Abridged Index

Estonian Central Council (ECC) in Canada

By Richard

(Click here for a PDF to see this article as it appears in print)

(See a related article in Esprit de Corps military magazine, April 2021)

The Estonian Central Council (ECC) in Canada claims to oppose both Nazism and communism, which it equates as twin evils. However, since its creation in 1954, ECC efforts have focused entirely on battling communism. This, after all, was the fixation of various Waffen SS veterans and Gestapo members, and other Nazi collaborators and their apologists who formed and then led the ECC throughout the Cold War.

ECC vice president Karl Eerme stated its goal in 1964. As a German-Estonian who had been a "war correspondent"1 for the Nazi-led Estonian army, former lieutenant Eerme said the ECC’s purpose was to "provide the focal point for the co-ordination ... of all Estonians in Canada ... in their avowed and active opposition to the doctrine of Communism generally and the Communist regime in their native land."2 After his time in a US POW camp in Germany,3 Eerme emigrated to Toronto where he continued the antiSoviet propaganda war though the ECC.

 The ECC emerged from the preexisting Estonian Federation in Canada (EFC), when it "was not deemed credible" by the Canadian government. The government did not trust the EFC to be the "national Canadian ethnic representative organisation," said sociologist Linda Blanshay, because "it represented all Estonians in Canada, regardless of political affiliation."

Blanshay, program director for the Simon Wiesenthal Museum of Tolerance, noted in her PhD thesis that the ECC, like Canada’s other East European émigré groups, fulfilled several key functions. Besides "countering Communist activities in their respective ‘national’ foreign communities in Canada," they also aided by "proving the allegiance of their communities to Canada," and representing "their groups as ‘non problematic’ to the Canadian Christian democratic formation."4

In describing its Cold-War efforts, the ECC has said "it was easy to find allies amongst Western governments, politicians and media."5 This remains the case. The ECC still enjoys the same powerful allies that it enjoyed throughout the Cold War. For example, the ECC says it has "fought to further Magnitsky sanctions in Canada,... maintained support for NATO, ... [and] for Ukraine in their war with Russia." The ECC has also been very active in the Black Ribbon Day movement. It was founded in the 1980s by Markus Hess, who became the ECC’s president (2011-15). He now represents the ECC on the board of Tribute to Liberty (TTL). It won unanimous support from parliament to fund a large monument in Ottawa dedicated to promoting anticommunism.6

ECC links to Nazi collaborators

In the early 1960s, the Soviet Union publicly exposed various ECC activists and leaders who it identified as Nazi collaborators. One 1964 article, in a Soviet Estonian publication for émigrés called Homeland, said:

The Canadian emigrees’ "Estonian Central Council," is justifiably called a "Sonderkomando" ([CIA] Translator: Special activities group in German such as execution detachments, etc.) Its membership included ... Aksel Luitsalu and Aleksander Laak.7

The Soviets also named other Nazi-linked ECC leaders: former SS-lieutenants Ilmar Heinsoo, Eerick Heine and Lino Kurist; former SS-Legion staff member Harri Parkma; and former Gestapo police commissioners Samuel Kook and August Kala.8

Winnipeg’s Aleksander Laak:  Commandant of a Nazi death camp

Using Nazi files, eye-witness accounts and other evidence gathered when liberating Estonia from German occupation in 1944, the Soviets identified Aleksander Laak as the most brutal of Estonia’s Nazi collaborators in Canada. According to files available through the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Soviets indicted Laak on August 20, 1960, for "organizing extermination camp Jägala and personally shooting Jews."9

A week later the USSR’s Tass News Agency reported that the former commandant of this Estonian death camp, who oversaw the murder of 3,000 prisoners, had been living in Winnipeg since 1948. Within six days, over 30 Canadian newspaper articles mentioned the Tass report, but not one was interested in pursuing the truth or falsehood of the Soviet statements.10 Instead, most said that what they called the "Red Story," "Red Charges" or "Red Claims" were mere "propaganda." This spin was aided by the RCMP. Most of Canada’s news articles quoted an RCMP officer who denigrated the Tass report as "a piece of propaganda." Many added that after talking to Laak, "the RCMP appears satisfied he has a clear record."11

Despite all the evidence, and more than three dozen witnesses that testified at the Soviet trial in 1960,
Canadian corporate media insisted on describing Laak
as an "alleged Nazi war criminal," even in 1990.

 Red Deer Advocate, April 17, 1990, p.2.

The RCMP showed its bias by harassing Keith Rutherford, a young Winnipeg reporter who dared broadcast Moscow Radio’s report on Laak. The RCMP "wanted to know why I sent to Moscow for the tape," said Rutherford. "I guess they thought I was a Communist in disguise."12 Mounties grilled him on his links to a leftwing CCF youth group, his mother’s turn-of-the-century labour actions and his brother’s teacher, a WWII pacifist.13

(Thirty years later, in April 1990, a gang of swastika-wearing skinheads shouting ‘White Power’ attacked Rutherford to avenge his 1960 program and left him blind in one eye. One of them, who pretended to be Laak’s grandson, received a mere six-week jail term.14)

In contrast to Rutherford, corporate journalists like Southam’s Charles King presented the government line. Writing from Ottawa about government reactions to Soviet news reports on Laak, King assured readers in 1960 that "the experts here believe it is probably a phony."15

Aleksander Laak, 1942

Laak, still unnamed by Canada’s mainstream press, came forward to proclaim innocence. Laak admitted he was a WWII veteran who had fought the Soviets and that he had commanded Estonia’s central prison. Saying he knew the Soviets were pursuing him for crimes, he insisted that he had never heard of the Jägala death camp. "The Russian story is 99 per cent lies," he claimed. "It is only Communist propaganda." His son, scolding Canada’s media, demanded: "Why should you print that Communist propaganda?" Newspapers, he insisted, "are just letting themselves be used" by the Soviets, who "just wanted my father to be pestered."16 Comments by Laak’s wife, neighbours, co-workers and employer at Winnipeg’s Air Force base, were used to reinforce Laak’s story that he was a victim of Soviet lies.

After this initial flurry, media stories stopped. Three days later, the frenzy reignited when Laak killed himself.17 Newspapers divulged his name and began spreading their verdict that Soviet propaganda had pushed this innocent man to suicide. A death notice in the Estonian war veterans’ publication, Võitleja (Combatant), memorialized Laak as a "victim of communism."18 Four city papers said "Fear of communism aroused by Communist propaganda was blamed today for the death of a 53-year-old Estonian who hanged himself..."19 Eight headlines that day falsely claimed that Canada’s government had cleared Laak of all charges.20

The ECC defends Laak’s innocence

Enn Salurand

After finding safe haven in Canada, Salurand helped found the Estonian Central Council in Canada and was its secretary general for more than 25 years. He was revered as a veteran of Estonia’s "War of Independence" against Soviet Russia (1918-20).  In 1931, he helped create and lead the Estonian National Club (EKN) in Estonia, and was editorial chief of its journal in 1935. The EKN was an elitist, anti-democratic organization whose radical-right ethnonationalist policies were eugenics-based and intolerant of national minorities. The EKN was banned in 1940 when the Soviets took power in Estonia. In 1960, when the Soviets exposed the fact that Winnipeg's Alexander Laak was the commander of Estonia's Jägala death camp, Salurand called it a Communist propaganda attack designed to target and discredit all Estonians.

The ECC then took to the media battlefield. One article, "Estonians Fear Smear Campaign," said Toronto’s 8,000 Estonians were afraid they would "come under a Soviet propaganda barrage of the kind" that "drove a former Estonian in Winnipeg to commit suicide." Then-ECC leader, Enn Salurand, told the press that Estonian Canadians were "bracing themselves for a Communist campaign designed to discredit them" and that it "is very easy for the Reds to make up all kinds of lies about innocent persons."21

Salurand, the ECC’s secretary general for more than 25 years, was a veteran of Estonia’s "War of Independence" against Soviet Russia (1918-20).22 In 1931 he helped create and lead the Estonian National Club (EKN) and was editorial chief of its journal in 1935. The EKN was a "group of ultranationalist intellectuals, whose publication," says scholar Pin-Yu Chen, was "the platform of radical right ideologies." Chen, whose PhD thesis includes ERK’s eugenics-based ethnonationalism, notes that the

"EKN’s strong vision of the nation as a biological entity, threatened by degeneration and diseases, was behind their intolerance of national minorities, anxiety of assimilation and miscegenation, elitist and anti-democratic politics."23

When the Soviets took power in 1940 Estonia, they outlawed the EKN. After coming to Canada in 1950, Salurand helped found the ECC, and is said to have never missed a board meeting of Võitleja.24

"[T]he Soviet attack against Laak," said Salurand, "is just the beginning of a new war of nerves against all of us."25 All too many Estonian Canadians were very nervous about being the next "target of a Russian news agency attack" because — like Laak — they too had collaborated with the Nazis against their shared enemy, the USSR. "[W]hoever was in the [Nazi-led] army during the occupation ... could be singled out next," said one Estonian émigré. "The Russians," he continued, "could easily say that Mr. X ... was a captain in an army unit which committed atrocities in Estonia."26

The next day, Sept. 10, 1960, a Regina editorial went further. Capitalizing on Laak’s suicide, it spread Cold-War anti-Red hysteria to nonEstonian Canadians:

All too many Canadians have been prone to look upon the post-war, east-west struggle in terms of newspaper headlines that can have little or no effect on their private lives. The tendency has been to view the cold war as ... far from the daily rounds of the average Canadian communities. ... [But] the battle against totalitarianism is real. This was brought home last week when the long arm of international communism reached into a prairie city to claim another victim. Alex Laak... He had been cleared by the Canadian immigration department and the RCMP. But the clearances were not enough ... he took his life, according to some reports to protect his friends and family.... The fact that Estonians living in Winnipeg are reported afraid that they...may be next on the Communist list will bring home to Canadians that...they too are in the battle line.27

Jewish women and 40 others identify Laak as death camp leader

Some Canadians, including a Jewish Holocaust survivor in Toronto, did not appreciate the press telling them that Laak was an innocent victim of communism. Czech refugee Greta Zarkower, a survivor of the Jägala concentration camp, had seen Laak in 1942. After recognising his photo in the news, she and other former slave labourers at his prison camp called the media. "Laak was wearing the SS uniform and was in charge," recalled Zarkower. "Laak and his men took all our valuables"28 and "I was beaten unmercifully, regularly, with a riding whip by SS men."29

Two other Holocaust survivors also contacted the Canadian Press after recognizing Laak’s face in papers. They too confirmed seeing him when he was Jägala’s commandant. These US citizens, Gizela Herzl and Susan Spalter, were among the Czech and German Jews that the Nazis trucked to Laak’s camp on Sept. 5, 1942. Most, including their closest loved ones, were killed there that day. In late 1943, Herzl and Spalter were moved to Estonia’s state prison where Laak became chief warden.30

Damning "Red Russia" and its "meddlesome and presumptuous bigots" who wanted "to have a blood-dripping finger in the Canadian pie," columnist Harold Weir ended his Red-baiting rant by slamming the infantile idea of "Canadian neutrality":

When the Communists ... have the gall to virtually sentence our residents to death, it seems to become crystal clear that any dream of Canadian neutrality is so much marijuana smoke, reminiscent of the mewling of colicky infants. (Emphasis added.)  ("Neutrality Out," Vancouver Sun, Sep. 21, 1960, p.4.)

Ironically, Canada’s press then went quiet on the Laak story until seven months later when a Soviet court heard confessions about his key role in slaughtering crying infants that were "as young as a year old."

Vancouver Sun columnist Harold Weir summed up the news with slurs about "parlor pinks," "fellow travelers" and "easy-bleeders." Claiming "the Reds reached out from Russia and put the finger" on Laak, Weir said Canadians "should not be picked off by long-range snipers from Moscow." Damning "Red Russia" and its "meddlesome and presumptuous bigots" who wanted "to have a blood-dripping finger in the Canadian pie," Weir ended his Red-baiting rant by slamming the infantile idea of "Canadian neutrality":

When the Communists ... have the gall to virtually sentence our residents to death, it seems to become crystal clear that any dream of Canadian neutrality is so much marijuana smoke, reminiscent of the mewling of colicky infants.31 (Emphasis added.)

Ironically, Canada’s press went quiet on Laak until seven months later when a Soviet court heard confessions about his key role in slaughtering crying infants "as young as a year old." Ralph Gerrets, who Laak had made his deputy at Jägala, confessed that they killed thousands of prisoners, mostly Jews and "Gypsies." Describing in gruesome detail one of their many massacres, Gerrets told the court they were aged only:

three to five years, barefoot, hatless, dressed in pyjamas, icy cold and all crying.... I took those by the hand and led them to the trench...where they were shot.32

The murderers, he testified, included Laak.

Another Estonian who pled guilty to these murders was Jan Vijk. He and Gerrets identified Laak as "the principal killer." Gerrets also described the mass execution of 900 foreign Jews brought to Jägala on September 5, 1942.33 Vijk, Gerrets "and two score [i.e., forty] other witnesses indicated he [Laak] was the most bloodthirsty of the Estonian police force."34 (Emphasis added.)

Soviet courts amassed overwhelming evidence against a third accused, Ain-Ervin Mere, commander of Nazi Estonia’s Security Police. Mere was tried in absentia because Britain refused to extradite him. If Laak had lived, Canada too would certainly have rejected Soviet extradition requests.

Soviet courts heard disturbing testimony from Jägala’s female prisoners. They described being "ordered to undress on arrival at the extermination camp while they were being examined by Gerrets and Lt. Alexander Laak."35 Witnesses testified that "girl inmates...were forced to take part in orgies at night and murdered afterward."36 Mere and Laak arranged these "drunken orgies" during Mere’s visits to Jägala.37

This memorial at the execution site for the Jägala concentration camp was erected in 1960 in Soviet Estonia. It was desecrated in August 2018.

Holocaust victim memorials vandalised at Kalevi-Liiva August 22, 2018

Despite such shocking evidence, including 40 witnesses who identified Laak as the camp’s murderous leader, no Canadian newspapers mentioned Laak, or previous claims of his innocence by the ECC, RCMP, the government and media. Instead, most stories critiqued the trial by saying its "major purpose" "was to bring discredit upon the Estonian emigre organizations."38 When the three Estonians were sentenced to death, Canadian papers did not mention Laak. Rather, most concluded that the "six-day show trial apparently aimed at discrediting anti-Soviet Estonian refugee groups."39

The only media response from Canada’s Estonian community was a letter to the editor from the ECC-linked Estonian Society of Montreal. Its vice president, Martin Puhvel, castigated the Gazette’s coverage of the trial and defended Estonia’s Nazi collaborators as "patriots" who fought "unprovoked aggression by the Russian enslavers":

"[I]t is incomprehensible how any paper could dignify such vicious propagandists fairytales by reporting them ... on its front page under a blaring headline ‘Nazi firing squad shot children.’ The Soviet propaganda machine has ... launched a campaign of calumny and vilification against Estonian patriots whose only ‘crime’ lies in defending their homes against murderous, unprovoked aggression by the Russian enslavers ...."40

Calling it all a "vicious smear campaign," Puhvel blamed the media for giving "help and comfort to the enemies of freedom" by "spreading grisly, painful stories of massacre of infant children by men who were busy defending their homes" against the Reds.41

Waffen SS officer Aksel Luitsalu,
a prominent leader of the ECC,
met both Pearson and Diefenbaker

After the trial, the Soviets reported that on Aug. 5, 1960 Prime Minister John Diefenbaker had met Nazi collaborator and ECC leader, Aksel Luitsalu, the wartime police chief of Tartu, Estonia’s second largest city. Tass said "investigating agencies on crimes committed in Estonia during the Nazi occupation" found that "14,000 were murdered in Tartu during the Nazi occupation, including a large number of children aged six to 12."42

Luitsalu admitted he "served on the Tartu police force from 1933 to 1944" and "rose to the rank of commissar," but denied any wrongdoing in Nazi Estonia.43 After becoming Tartu’s police chief in 1942 he was a company commander in Estonia’s Waffen SS. With the Nazi SS rank of Obersturmführer (Senior Lieutenant), Luitsalu fought the Soviets on the Eastern Front. Following his time in a British POW camp (1945-46), he was active in Germany’s Estonian community before moving to Canada in 1951.44

Luitsalu denied all charges as a "Pure lie from the very beginning."45 His comments never critiqued the Nazis but always attacked the Soviets. "The charges" against him, he said, "are typical Russia smear tactics aimed at covering their own sins."46 The Soviets, papers claimed, sought "to disgrace leaders of foreign communities in all cities in the free world." In this context, Luitsalu "recalled the recent suicide of a Winnipeg immigrant, Alex Laak, similarly charged and ‘hounded to death’ by the Russians."47

Endel Kareda
This Untersturmführer (2nd Lieutenant) in Estonia’s Waffen SS in 1944, came to Canada and became the founding editor of an Estonian weekly
.  In 1961, to counter Soviet revelations about Estonian Canadians (like Axel Luitsalu, who collaborated with the Nazis), the Estonian Central Council published Kareda's book Estonia: Forgotten Nation.

The "ECC took the necessary steps to counter the attacks on A. Luitsalu," who was their vice president. In the 1950s Luitsalu had led the Toronto Estonian Society48 and the Baltic Federation in Canada (BFC).49 To decry the Soviet’s so-called "savage campaign against the Canadian prime minister and Estonian refugees," the ECC began a "counter campaign." This included ECC media outreach, government briefs and the publication of Estonia: Forgotten Nation."50

This ECC book was penned by Endel Kareda, who had been the founding editor of a Toronto-based Estonian weekly, Meie Elu (Our Life). Kareda, a German Estonian, whose family name had been changed from Klaussen, was an Untersturmführer (2nd Lieutenant) in Estonia’s Waffen SS in 1944.51

While Diefenbaker "declined comment on [Soviet] charges" that Luitsalu "was a Nazi collaborator,"52 Liberal Party leader Lester Pearson belittled the Soviet report by smearing it as communist propaganda. Pearson, who had helped lead Canada’s anti-Red war of words for a decade, quickly joined the Soviet bashing. "I detest smears,"53 said Pearson, without any sense of irony.

Luitsalu met John Diefenbaker during the BFC’s August-5 delegation to Ottawa. Its president, Jonas Simanavicius, was a leader of the Lithuanian Canadian Community.54 He had also led a BFC delegation in June when Luitsalu and others met Pearson,55 who was then leader of Canada's official opposition. The BFC was lobbying for Canada to use its UN platform to rebuke the USSR.56 Diefenbaker’s stridently antiSoviet speech at the UN that September57 is still fondly recalled by Estonian nationalists.58 Joining the ECC in cheerleading Diefenbaker’s diatribe was that network of former Nazi collaborators, the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations.

References and notes

1. Ülle Kraft, Year 1941 in Estonia, (Estonian War Museum), 2007, p.237.

2. Affidavit of Karl Eerme, Dec.18, 1964.

3. Karl Eerme, Days without Days and Nights Without Nights, 1962-63. (Note: These memoirs of Nazi Estonian army and a US POW in Germany.)

4. Linda Blanshay, The Nationalisation of Ethnicity: A Study of the Proliferation of National Mono-Ethnocultural Umbrella Organisations in Canada, 2001, p. 206-07. (PhD thesis, Sociology, Univ. Glasgow).

5. ECC elections, Mar. 23, 2007.

6. Markus Hess, "Vote!," Estonian Life, Dec. 5, 2015.

7. Excerpt, CIA translation, "About an Angel with Pink Wings," Homeland, May 27, 1964.

8. Ibid.

9. Finding aid, US Holocaust Memorial Museum for Estonian State Archives of the former Estonian State Security Cttee’s records on war crime investigations and trials in Estonia, p.28.

10. See author’s collection of articles, Aug.29-Sep.2, 1960.

11. "Family of Alleged Nazi tells of Early Struggles, RCMP appears Satisfied...," Star-Phoenix, Aug.31, 1960, p.1.

12. "Beaten man not cowed by intimidation," Edmonton Journal, Apr.17, 1990, p.3.

13. Warren Kinsella, Web of Hate: Inside Canada’s Far Right Network, 1994, pp.180-81.

14. Ibid., p.183-84.

15. Charles King, "Nazi torturer in Winnipeg? Ottawa thinks story ‘phony’," Province, Aug. 30, 1960, p.26.

16. See author’s collection of ten articles, Aug.31-Sep.7, 1960.

17. See author’s collection of sixteen articles, Sep. 7, 1960.

18. Võitleja (Combatant or Fighter), Oct. 1960, p.8.

In 1980, this "Global Voice of Estonian Military and Freedom Fighters," founded by veterans who fled to Nazi Germany in 1944, moved to the ECC’s Estonian House, Toronto.
(The publication's masthead uses the symbol of the Estonian Waffen SS.)

19. For example, "Laak Suicide Blamed on Fear of Communist Propaganda," Star-Phoenix, Sep.8, 1960, p.9. See also author’s collection of articles, Sep.8, 1960.

20. Headlines include: "No Evidence he was War Criminal: Probe Clears ‘Nazi’ Suicide Victim," "Laak Cleared in Check," "Ottawa Investigations Clear Man accused by Russians," "Records give Laak Clean Bill." These absolved the government for letting Laak into Canada because he had not divulged (or had not been asked) anything to incriminate him.

See author’s collection of eight articles, Sep. 8, 1960.

21. "Estonians Fear Smear Campaign," Ottawa Journal, Sep.9, 1960, p.24.

22. Võitleja, Mar/Apr 1992, p.10.

23. Pin-Yu Paris Chen, Race, Nation, and Eugenics in Interwar Estonian Radical Right Journal ERK Magazine, 2017, p.4. (MA, U. of Tartu, Political Studies.)

24. Võitleja, Mar./Apr. 1992, ibid.

25. "Estonians here fear Red ‘Hate’ campaign," Ottawa Citizen, Sep.10, 1960, p.10.

26. "Estonians Fearful Relatives in Canada May Become Targets," Edmonton Journal, Sep. 9, 1960, p.30.

27. Editorial, "Another cold war casualty," Leader-Post, Sep. 10, 1960, p.15.  (The L-P's editor was Percy G. Keffer.)

28. "Woman in East knew hanged Nazi," Vancouver Sun, Sep.12, 1960, p.3.

29. "Laak Took Valuables Toronto Woman Says," Red Deer Advocate, Sep.12, 1960, p.10.

30. See author’s collection of fifteen articles, Sep.10-13, 1960.

31. Harold Weir, "Neutrality Out," Vancouver Sun, Sep. 21, 1960, p.4.

Estonia is not to attend a Holocaust remembrance event in Israel

None of the Estonian leaders will represent the country in Israel at a high-level Holocaust remembrance event on 23 [January 2020] even though almost all European Union member states will attend.

The Estonian president, Kersti Kaljulaid, is currently in Antarctica with an expedition celebrating the bicentennial of the discovery of the continent.

The country’s prime minister, Jüri Ratas, on the other hand, is in Davos, Switzerland, attending the 50th World Economic Forum.


32. "Children’s Slaughter Described," Leader-Post, Mar. 7, 1961, p.28.

33. Preston Grover, "Led Tearful Children to Nazi Firing Squad," Ottawa Journal, Mar. 7, 1961, p.14.

See author’s collection of seventeen articles, Mar.6-8, 1961.

"Estonian policemen stand trial for war crimes." (Soviet film from the trial includes Gerrets’ testimony that Laak shot children.)

34. "Estonian Court Decrees 3 to Die; Laak Most Bloodthirsty," Windsor Star, Mar.13, 1961, p.12.

35. "Jewish Women Tell of Horror while Parents Exterminated," Montreal Gazette, Mar. 8, 1961, p.4.

36. "Girls Forced into Orgies, then Slain, Court told," Ottawa Citizen, Mar. 8, 1961. p.7.

See author’s collection of seven articles, Mar. 8, 1961.

37. Current Digest of the Soviet Press, Vol.12, 1960, p.41.

38. See author’s collection of nine articles, Mar. 9-13, 1961.

39. See author’s collection of eight articles, Mar. 30-Apr.6, 1961.

40. "Protests Story of Estonian ‘Trial’," Montreal Gazette, Mar.13, 1961, p.6.

41. Ibid.

42. "Diefenbaker Saw Him: Soviets ‘Expose’ Estonia Emigre," Times Colonist, Nov. 14, 1960, p.3.

43. "Red Charge denied...," Vancouver Sun, Nov.14, 1960, p.14.

44. Taivo Kirm, "When a Kaagvere man in Toronto fought for Estonian freedom," Kastre Valla Infoleht, Jun. 1, 2018, p.8. (translation)

45. See author’s collection of 11 articles, Nov.14-15, 1960.

46. "Estonian Leader Denies Red Charge," Ottawa Journal, Nov. 14, 1960, p.21.

47. "Red Charge Denied ..." op. cit.

See author’s collection of nine articles, Nov. 14-15, 1960

48. Aksel/Axel Alexander Luitsalu

49. Red Deer Advocate, Nov. 14, 1960, p.1.

50. The Estonians in Canada, Vol. I, 1975.

51. Names, National Archives of Estonia

52. Star-Phoenix, Nov. 14, 1960, p.1.

53. "Pearson Hits Reds for Smear Tactics," Edmonton Journal, Nov. 16, 1960, p.53.

"Pearson Hits Propaganda and Smears," Province, Nov. 16, 1960, p.5.

54. Ibid.

(Note: Simanavicius was BFC president (1957, 1960-61), president of Toronto’s LCC and on the LCC executive (1974-80).

Fonds 14, Jonas Robertas Simanavicius fonds

55. Ibid.

56. "Reds Say Refugee was Mass Slayer," Ottawa Citizen, Nov. 14, 1960, p.7.

57. UN General Assembly, Plenary, Sep. 26, 1960, pp.108-12.

58. Kirm, op. cit.

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Peaceable Kingdom at War,
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and the Red Scare to the
Mass Internment of Civilians

(Or, how we learned to stop worrying,
keep calm and carry on loving the
myths that define and confine us.)


Read the introductory article:
"The Canada Syndrome,
a Captivating Mass Psychosis

Click to read the contents of this magazine online

Fictive Canada
Indigenous Slaves
and the Captivating Narratives
of a Mythic Nation

Read the i
ntroductory article:
True Crime Stories and
the Politics of Literary Escapism:
Canada as a Fiction in the
Imperial Genre


Watch the COAT website
for news about....

  (1) an upcoming book
by Richard Sanders

with the
  working title...

The Grooming
of a Liberal
War Hawk
Chrystia Freeland

Stop Canadian government
funding of groups that
glorify Nazi collaborators

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